Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune Disorders - Human body’s immune system has the capability to fight against foreign bodies, chemicals, xenobiotics, microorganisms. But, if it turns on the very body it is supposed to defend, attacking its own cells and tissues.

autoimmune disease

It is believed that autoimmune diseases can occur this way. No doubt, body is doing a very fine job by attacking foreign invaders, the immune system also makes the person it is trying to protect fell more ill. Some of the well-known autoimmune disorders include, Rheumatoid arthritis, polymyositis, reciters syndrome, Sjogren’s syndrome and many more.

There can be multiple factors responsible for causing these diseases such as infections that may affect our immune system, various medications one takes, or one may be born with so many diseases or complications. The disease burden of autoimmune diseases continues to understand the mystery as to what makes the immune system to behave in this strange manner.

Most common autoimmune diseases are listed below; -

Rheumatoid Arthritis

The most distinctive feature with this disease is that some patients oscillate between minimally active and very active disease. The most noticeable symptom includes inflammation accompanied with pain of synovial tissue in the small joints of the hand and feet. Other issues associated with this disease are fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction.

The disease is progressive over time and can lead to joint destruction if left untreated. The pharmacological therapy includes treatment with drugs which can modify or halt the progression of disease and allow the patients to perform usual activities. However, the median life expectancy of patients affected with RA is also less.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease.(IBD)

The age of starting of this disease can be in two stages. Age is an important consideration with this disease. This disease can occur in two stages

a) 15 and 30 years
b) 60 and 80 years.

Signs and symptoms of IBD include 

• Severe diarrhea
 Abdominal pain
• Blood in stool
• Fatigue and weight loss

There are other diseases of gastrointestinal tract such as amoebic dysentery ulcerative colitis which may also present the same symptoms and the clinicians find it difficult to get the disease diagnosed correctly then. One more issue is to keep in mind how to distinguish IBD from Chrons disease and ulcerative colitis. Some patients are completely bed ridden and there can be comorbidity with other diseases like liver disease, Anemia and many more.


This disease is characterized by plaque elevated inflamed areas of the skin. These are painful and somewhat itchy. The problem does not stop here .The areas slowly increase in size and appear on the scalp,knees,elbows,lower back, palm and soles.

In extreme cases the entire body may be covered which determines the severity of the disease. Psoriasis can be either superficial or severe. The localize area can be cured with topical medications which includes dosage forms like creams,pastes,ointments,lotions etc. Oral medication are recommended as well which can handle severe psoriasis.

Multiple sclerosis

In the central nervous system nerve cells are covered with protective covering called myelin sheath. This myelin sheath gets damaged which spreads the transmission to the entire nervous system.

Normally, myelin sheath spreads the transmission of impulses and messages between spinal cord and brain to and rest of the body. Mage to myelin sheath would naturally slow down the transmission of messages. Multiple sclerosis leads to numbness, weakness and walking trouble. The disease may be progressive.

Systemic lupus Erythematosus

This disease affects organs such as joints, kidneys, brain and heart.
The cause of this disease is unknown. This is such an autoimmune disease which affects healthy cells of one’s own body and the immune system is unable to differentiate between organism and own system.

Central nervous system, blood vessels, heart, eyes, skin and joints are the major systems that are affected most. This disease is very much curable. Patients are treated with steroids with initial dose of 1mg/kg/day which is later on reduced in a tapering manner.

However, immunosupressants like Mycophenolate, Cyclophosphamaide, Azathioprine are second line medications that can be considered in the treatment of this disease. Intake of calcium and vitamin D is also recommended here.

Dietary supplements with omega fatty acids which have anti inflammatory action can be taken in order to avoid cardiac complications if any. One good blessing  for foody people is that spicy food is supposed to be the best in auto immune diseases.

Sjogren’s Syndrome

This is a systemic disease affecting the entire body and leads to dry eyes and dry mouth. This disease is found in females though it can occur in both the sexes and at any age. Exocrine glands which that produce moisture are affected.

This disease is characterized by dryness of eyes, dry mouth, dry nose, dry skin, fatigue and much more. The exact cause of this disorder is not known. Viral infections can precipitate it to great instant. This syndrome can be either exocrine secretion gland dysfunction or associated secondarily with other autoimmune disorders.

At present autoimmune disorders are increasing in our country and very soon we have to bear the burden of autoimmune diseases.

No doubt, such diseases are not communicable but are going to be a challenge in the hands of clinician and to tackle such diseases in our country should also be on priority. Only suppressive treatments are available till date.

No doubt, research is going on to find out the real cause of such disorders. This could lead to understanding of diagnosis, preventions, complications and treatment measures in order to ensure better life style for such patients.

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